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Evolution

1. What is evolution?

Evolution has two commonly accepted usage's:

2. What is the general theory of evolution?

All living organisms on earth have arisen from a single source which itself came from nonliving matter. This theory is based upon the work of Darwin and includes two concepts; first, organisms change with time and second, the change is directed by natural selection.

3. What is neo-Darwinism or the synthetic theory of evolution?

It is the combination of the concepts of Darwin and the science of genetics.

4 What are the mechanisms that have been proposed for evolution?

The mechanisms are gradualism, saltation (hopeful monster) and punctuated equilibria. Darwin viewed evolution as slow, gradual, cumulative process over long periods of time. This would produce a series of imperceptible changes from primitive to more advanced animals. Darwin recognized that the fossil record did support such a concept but he believed they would be found in the future. Over one hundred years later the fossils are still missing. As a result, others have proposed that evolution took place by large evolutionary jumps or saltations which resulted in the formation of entirely new organism, hence the term, "hopeful monster." Most evolutionist have abandoned this concept simply because it can not be supported by evidence. Still other evolutionist have accepted the lack of transitional forms and the failure of gradualsim and proposed another mechanism called "punctuated equilibria." According to this concept evolution has at times occurred very rapidly with new species appearing and persisting for millions of years unchanged.

5. What is the significance of the controversy over mechanism?

At the present time there is no accepted mechanism. Evolution is a theory without a mechanism, an explanation of how it works.

6. According to the Scriptures, how did life originate?

God created life over a period of time. Man was the last to be created. Each kind was to reproduce after its kind.

7. What are the evidences given for evolution?

The evidences usually given are the geographical distribution of plants and animals, fossils, comparative anatomy, comparative physiology and biochemistry, comparative embryology and vestigial organs.

8. How valid is this evidence?

This short paper can not give detailed analysis of the evidences but it is evident that much is based upon Similarities. Do similarities always mean relatedness? Not in the case of the duckbill platypus. similarities can just as easily be interpreted to indicate creation and design. It should be noted that Classification is only possible because there are consistent difference. Geographical distribution can also fit into a creation model. Similarities in embryology have been overstated and at times misrepresented. Recapitulation can still be found in textbooks, even though it is no longer in favor. Many organs once thought to be "vestigial" are now known to be functional. Evolutionist is more cautious in their statement about many of these organs. We will more to say about fossils and biochemistry later. When more than one scheme of interpretation is possible, nothing is proved simply by choosing one and ignoring the other.

9. What is the problem which mutations present for evolution?

The basic driving force for evolution is thought to be natural selection. Mutation is thought to be the means or mechanism through which natural selection has occurred. Of the two types of mutations only germinal mutations are passed to the offspring. The problem is that mutations are mistakes. They are thought to be 99.9% harmful. The second problem is that mutation is random. It is very difficult for me to understand how something that is overwhelmingly harmful and random could be progressive.

10. What is the problem with the fossil record?

Charles Darwin recognized the problem the fossil record presented for his theory of evolution. However he believed that further investigation would produce the missing links. It has not. The Intermediate or transitional fossils are still missing. A second problem is the so-called "Cambrian Explosion." A vast and diverse number of fossils appear suddenly. A third problem is the questionable nature of so-called Pre-Cambrian fossils.

11. What are the assumptions upon which the theory of evolution is based?

G. A. Kerkut, a noted British biologist and evolutionist, in his book, "Implications of Evolution," listed and carefully analyzed these assumptions:

12. What was G. A. Kerkut conclusions about these assumptions?

He concluded that though they may be true, all are unproven and questionable.

13. What problem is presented by the major groups in the supposed evolutionary tree?

If you take the reptiles and the mammals, for example, there are major differences in structures that would require extensive and massive alterations in the genetic material.

14. Natural and artificial selection have been cited as examples of evolution. What is the problem?

There is indeed great variation in the genetic stock of plants and animals but there are limits, as every breeder knows. These are examples of microevolution but not macroevolution.

15. The peppered moth is cited as examples of evolution? What is the problem?

Whether white or black they are still moths. Again this is microevolution. To extrapolate to macroevolution is a tremendous leap of faith.

16. The evolution of the horse is often pictured in textbooks as a sequence toward an increase in size, lengthening of the limbs, reduction in the number of toes and a change in tooth form and pattern. What is the problem?

These horses are not connected by transitional forms. Diagrams in textbooks often give the impression of straight-line evolution, but admittedly this is incorrect.

17. Why do evolutionists hold to the theory of evolution despite the problems that they themselves discuss?

If you hold to a materialistic philosophy of life, there is actually an alternative. As an example, George Wald, states that spontaneous generation is "impossible" yet here we are- as a result, I believe, of spontaneous generation.

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Last Update   09/26/12